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Blood actually has quite a lot of stuff in it all for a humble red liquid that spurts out each time we get lower or scratched. 55% of our blood is normally plasma, which is mainly drinking water (91%), but also has proteins (7%) and various other substances (the stuff that's getting transported to and from the cells) dissolved in it. The other 45% of our blood comprises of the cells in it, namely erythrocytes (red bloodstream cells), leucocytes (white blood cells) and thrombocytes (platelets). Blood helps keep up with the inner environment of your body (for some reason the word "homeostasis" comes to mind right here, but I don't know whether it's relevant in this context). It not merely does this through having nutrition to the cells and removing their wastes, but it addittionally maintains the pH of bodily fluids, distributes warmth, maintains water content and ion concentration of fluids, and protects against illnesses.

Water (91%)- solvent for all the other substances contained in plasma. Proteins (7%)- Proteins in the plasma are known as plasma proteins, and contain albumins (like those in egg whites), globulins (some can act as antibodies when fighting diseases) and fibrinogen (involved with bloodstream clotting). These proteins are what makes the blood sticky. Cl-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-). Ions and proteins combined donate to the osmotic pressure of the blood, encouraging more drinking water to diffuse in to the blood (see my previous post about diffusion and osmosis for more information on what this works). Other substances- include nutrition dissolved from food, dissolved gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide), hormones, waste material from cells, etc. Proportion of these chemicals depend on what part of the body you are looking at, among various other factors. These are simply the cells suspended in the plasma- the aforementioned red and white bloodstream cells, as well as platelets. Shape: Circular and biconcave (i.e. each side includes a concave surface), due to having no nucleus. Size: Very small- roughly 7.5 micrometres in size.

Number: In men- about 5.4 million per cubic millimetre. In women- about 4.8 million per cubic millimetre. Lifespan: Roughly 120 days, after which the cell membrane becomes fragile due to having no nucleus. How is the main function of this type of cell performed? Although reddish colored blood cells are initially produced with nuclei, the nucleus can be eliminated as the cells mature. This makes the cells biconcave in shape, while still leaving plenty of space for haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is required for carrying oxygen around the bloodstream. It's produced up of a protein called globin, coupled with four haem groupings, each containing an iron atom which can combine with an atom of oxygen. The mix of haemoglobin and oxygen is facilitated by the huge surface of the red blood cells, which gives more room for oxygen to diffuse inside. When the iron combines with oxygen, haemoglobin turns red. Each red bloodstream cell can hold up to 300 million molecules of haemoglobin, producing red blood cells very crimson indeed.

Additional fun facts about this kind of cell: Aging bloodstream cells are destroyed in the liver and spleen. Iron atoms plus some other parts of haemoglobin are reused, while other areas, like the bile pigments, get excreted (find my second post on the digestive system). Two million red blood cells are destroyed every second. Two million more are produced in the reddish bone marrow each second in order to maintain the number of reddish blood cells. That is clearly a lot of cells becoming destroyed and made! What goes on if you don't have enough of this kind of cell? Anaemia is a condition where the number of reddish colored bloodstream cells or the concentration of haemoglobin is decreased. This outcomes in inadequate oxygen supply to the tissues, which in turn results in an array of symptoms including fatigue and intolerance to chilly. Anaemia has a variety of different causes, including lack of too much blood, iron deficiency, B12 deficiency (B12 is necessary for the normal advancement of erythrocytes), destruction or inhibition of red bone marrow, or genetic conditions.

Some of these types of anaemia have special names- for instance, sickle cell anaemia is usually a genetic condition leading to deformed red blood cells, and pernicious anaemia is anaemia caused by inadequate B12. Unique features: Can shape-change and can engulf bacteria, dead cells and so on. Granular leucocytes, or granulocytes, possess granules suspended in the cell contents and their nuclei are "lobed" (that is, they have many lobes connected by thin filaments instead of just being one substantial lobe). Agranular leucocytes consist of monocytes and lymphocytes, which don't have granules (therefore the name) and will often have spherical nuclei. Amount: 5000 to 10 000 per cubic millimetre. Where shaped: Some (granulocytes and monocytes) are formed in the red bone marrow. Another type, lymphocytes, are created in organs such as the spleen, tonsils, thymus gland and lymph nodes. Lifespan: A few days. During infection, they could only live for a couple hours. It is because engulfing so much crap takes the life out of them (to be more scientific, "the substances used hinder normal cell functioning"). How is the main function of the type of cell performed?

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